Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. It can also be a result of disruption of trees on lowland and in highland. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. In Panama, an estimated of 18 million acres or 7.3 million hectares of forest, which is roughly the size of the country are lost each year according to the United Nations’ Food Agriculture Organization (FAO).
There are several reasons why deforestation occurs, the first one is the agricultural expansion since there is a huge demand for basic commodities thus, they convert the forest into agricultural lands. Second is the livestock ranching since the demand for meat increases. Third is the logging operation which provides income for people however it destroys the livelihood of those who depend on the forest. The fourth one is the infrastructure expansion like road construction wherein this lead to logging where opportunists slash down trees without permission from authorities. Last is the overpopulation wherein it increases the global needs and wants leading to expansion and deforestation.
Deforestation often results to loss of habitat that causes the loss of animal and plant species. Second, it increases greenhouse gases to be released into the atmosphere since lack of trees allows a greater amount of this. Third, lack of trees due to deforestation lessen the water in the air to be returned to the soil which will result to dryer soil and inability of the crops to grow. Fourth, it causes soil erosion and flooding since trees function is to retain water and topsoil. Lack of trees, the soil erodes and washes away. It will also results to the destruction of homelands of indigenous people who build their houses mostly in forests and mountains.
The quickest solution for deforestation is simply stop cutting down of trees. Aside from this, we can also go into Green Business which includes re-use and recycling. Eco-forestry could also be a solution for this wherein it suggests that the use of trees for human activities can be lessen thus, we can save trees with this. Law and regulations to stop human activities which involve frequent and excessive use of trees should be the concern of our government. The best solution for this is the reforestation or simply replanting or tree planting.